Musically and artistically, the early and middle Baroque Period encompassed the entire 17th century (1601-1700), which "officially" ended in 1750 upon the death of the great Johann Sebastian Bach. Another most familiar Baroque musician, George Frederic Handel was also born in 1685, the same as Bach. The 17th century was probably the first to see the births and deaths of composers and musicians who became household names, including Pachelbel, Monteverdi, Lully, Vivaldi, and many more.
In literature, perhaps that is not so much the case, since most people with even minimal education will recognize names dating back to ancient Greece. But nonetheless, the 17th century was an era of literary giants. Ben Johnson and William Shakespeare died, and John Milton, Molière, and Daniel Defoe were born, but Defoe did not publish his first novel, Robinson Crusoe, until 1719, at age 59. Visual artists Anthony van Dyck and Peter Paul Rubens died, and Rembrandt van Rjin was born. Other well-known names from this century include Sir Isaac Newton, Francis Bacon, and Galileo Galilei.
The renowned Queen Elizabeth I of England, died in 1603, ending the Tudor Dynasty. In France, Louis XIV, great patron of the arts, held the crown from 1643 until his death in 1715, making him the longest reigning monarch of any major European country.
Many inventions and discoveries sprang from this era, especially in science, math and space. In the culinary area, coffee and ice cream became popular. London suffered its Great Plague and later its devastating fire, and here in newly populated America, people mistaken for witches were burned in Salem. In the east, the Edo Period began in Japan, as the Ming Dynasty collapsed in China. In all, it was quite busy century! Wikipedia provides volumes of information with lots of links for further study.
On this page, you will find books written during or about this century, plus any other materials pertinent to this "Early Modern" era, as described by Wikipedia. Enjoy all these fascinating works!